JOB EVALUATION: PROCESSES AND PROCEDURES
1.1. The purpose of this document is to lay down the guidelines, processes and procedures to be followed during job evaluations sessions.
1.2. This document should not be treated as a manual but merely as a guide to the job evaluation process and will be subject to review from time to time.
2. OBJECTIVES/PURPOSES OF JOB EVALUATION
2.1 Primary Aim
Job evaluation determines (measures) the “intrinsic” worth of jobs, based on systematic assessment of the degree of complexity of job content and requirements, and to do this independently of any pre-conceived standards of remuneration and without regard to the qualities and performance of the actual incumbents who perform the jobs.
2.2. Secondary Aim
2.1.1. Job evaluation relates jobs to each other in terms of their intrinsic worth, and hence to determine relative complexities of different jobs and a rational job structure within an organisation.
2.1.2. Job evaluation provides a rational basis for equitable remuneration (pay and benefits) within an organisation, so that defensible rates of remuneration may be assigned to jobs themselves and to the individuals who perform these jobs (equal pay for equal value of the jobs).
3. HOW DOES JOB EVALUATION WORK
3.1. Job evaluation examines the contents and requirements of jobs and measures these according to a standard procedure: This result in job grades, scores, levels or ratings whereby jobs can be compared with other jobs.
3.2. Main elements of job evaluation:
JOB DESCRIPTION / PROFILE PERSON SPECIFICATION
4. IMPORTANCE OF JOB EVALUATION
4.1. It instils a useful discipline in formulating a job structure.
4.2. The contents, requirements of jobs and limits of discretion in respect of jobs can be formally ascertained to the satisfaction of all employees. (e.g. management, incumbents and other employees/stakeholders).
4.3. The process and results of job evaluation provide useful aids in:
• Recruitment and selection.
• Establishment of training needs.
• Training of individual employees.
• Performance appraisals.
• Career planning and development.
• Human capital planning.
• Organisational development.
• Job structuring.
• Collective bargaining, etc.
4.4. It is totally compatible with the concept of “paying the rate for the job”.
4.5. Job evaluation provides:
4.5.1. for re-structuring of jobs and job relationships where anomalies in these may occur.
4.5.2 a comparison of internal rates of remuneration within the market.
4.5.3 an objective basis for collective bargaining in determining rates of pay and benefits.
4.5.4 a basis for the development and maintenance of a certified remuneration scale within an organisation.
4.6. It will indicate whether a “wage gap” or any other anomalies exist.
5. PRINCIPLES OF JOB EVALUATION
5.1. Always examine the job itself, and not the person.
5.2. The Job Analyst should always assume proper and competent performance.
5.3. Evaluate the job “as is”, not with regard to ideas or future projections.
5.4. Allow for examples of “typical incidents” (examples of activities or circumstances that actually occur).
5.5. Do not use or allow unsatisfactory or unclear job descriptions.
5.6. There must always be at least one person during the evaluation session who can fully represent the job.
5.7. Unlikely events in the normal performance of the job must be disregarded (NB. “If it were to happen, then . . . “).
5.8 An agreement must be reached on the job content by the job incumbent(s), immediate supervisor and by Management – the job description should at all times be signed and dated.
5.9 It is always assumed that the job incumbent(s) have all the necessary personal attributes for “acceptability” in the job.
5.10 Never confuse the content requirements of the job with the personal attributes or merits of the job incumbent(s).
6. SUCCESS OF THE SYSTEM DEPENDS ON
6.1. Management and employee support and transparency during the process.
6.2. Clear procedure.
6.3. Clear definitions.
6.4. Written records.
6.5. Ownership by line manager.
6.6. Clear explanation of the links between the job description, the grade and the applicable remuneration.
6.7. Control of re-evaluations – clear procedures.
6.8. Stakeholder involvement e.g. union representatives, employees, etc.
7. PURPOSE OF JOB DESCRIPTIONS
7.1. Peromnes evaluate jobs from accurate, up-to-date written job descriptions, ideally supplemented by interviews with incumbents and/or their superiors.
7.2. No special format is required for Peromnes, as long as the job descriptions clearly describe:
• what is done,
• how it is done, and
• why it is done
the job can be evaluated.
8. JOB TITLES, JOB CONTENT AND SKILLS REQUIREMENTS
8.1. Job Title
A job title is not an indication of the complexity of a specific job, it is only a basic indication of its functional classification.
8.2. Job Content
This indicates the different tasks that are performed in the job. It reflects the expectations that the organisation has of the job incumbent regarding the achievement of organisational objectives.
8.3. Skills Requirements (Technical competencies)
Minimum skill requirements needed to competently perform the job activities. These skills can be acquired through specific education/training/experience or any combination thereof which should be included in the job description.
9. PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE CHOICE OF JOB EVALUATION FACTORS
9.1. Job evaluation factors must:
• be intrinsic to jobs,
• not measure aspects outside the job,
• be applicable to all jobs in terms of:
- function and
- level in organisation.
9.2. Certain aspects of jobs do not necessarily contribute to the intrinsic complexity of jobs, e.g.
• Size of applicable budget.
• Volume of business/work.
• Value of equipment used.
• Working (environmental) conditions.
9.3. Allowances may be paid for extrinsic aspects/circumstances.
12. CRITERIA FOR CHOOSING JOB EVALUATION SYSTEM
• The large numbers and types of organisations using it successfully.
• The acceptability of Job Eva System to all stakeholders.
• To all types of jobs;
• To all levels of jobs;
• To any kind of organisation.
• The manual system requires only a rating scale, a score sheet, a pen or pencil.
• No complex calculations.
• No complicated definitions or complex terminology.
• Procedures are standardised.
• Terminology is clearly defined.
• Different evaluators achieve same results.
• Organisation’s grades can be compared with other higher education and other organisations.
• The system is flexible in that the results can be applied to an organisation’s specific needs.
13. Job Eva SCORES AND GRADES
In this Job Evaluation System we evaluates and scores jobs in terms of either six or eight factors. The factors appear as a standardised rating scale
Factor 1: Problem Solving: Evaluates the nature and complexity of the decisions, judgements and recommendations made in the job.
Factor 2: Consequence of Judgements: Evaluates the impact or results of accountable decisions, judgements and recommendations on organisational levels, inside and outside the organisation.
Factor 3: Pressure of Work: Evaluates the amount of pressure in a job in terms of the variety and type of work done and the time available to do it.
Factor 4: Knowledge: Evaluates the level of knowledge required to perform the job competently.
Factor 5: Job Impact: Evaluates the influence or impact that the job has on the activities of parts of the organisation or outside the organisation.
Factor 6: Comprehension: Evaluates the requirement of the job to understand written and spoken communications.
Factor 7: Educational Qualifications: Evaluates the essential minimum educational qualification required to do the job
Factor 8: Further Training / Experience: Evaluates the typical period of further appropriate training and experience required to become competent in the job after obtaining the essential minimum educational qualifications.
• Each of the factors is scored out of 35 points in the rating scale. The sum of the scores for the factors give a total score which is converted into a Peromnes or P grade by using the conversion table.
• There are twenty one (21) grades in the Peromnes system, 1++ being the highest grade and 19 being the lowest grade.
• This Job Eva system grades show the rank order of jobs within an organisation and allow jobs to be compared by grade with other jobs both inside and outside the organisation.
14. EVALUATION PROCEDURE of This Job Evaluation system :
14.1. Number each job description for ease of reference.
14.2. Record on the score sheets points for each factor for each job according to the rating scale.
14.3. Add up the total number of points and record it in the TOTAL column.
14.4. Check the factor score and score relationships.
14.5. Convert total points to a job grade.
14.6. Borderline scores and anomalies are examined and grades decided upon, usually by Management and/or HR Department.
15. JOB EVALUATION COMMITTEE
15.1. An evaluation committee should be constituted according to the Job Evaluation Policy and may consist of the following trained members:
• “Core” members – At least one and preferably two members, should be present at all meetings of the committee. One member (the representative of the Department: Human Resources) is the chairperson of the committee.
• “Specialist” members – At least one specialist member should be present (in addition to at least one core member) at every committee session to give expert input regarding the particular job that is being evaluated.
• Other members – The rest of the committee can be made up from suitable, trained job evaluation members from all levels and disciplines within the organisation.
• In addition, there can be:
- “Employee Representatives” who may be either members of the evaluation committee or observers. Employee representatives should be fully trained in the Peromnes Job Evaluation System.
- “Job representatives” whose role is to provide information about the job being evaluated if a specialist member cannot do so. Job representatives need not be trained in job evaluation as they would not usually evaluate the jobs they represent.
16. INTERVIEWING FOR JOB EVALUATION
When the committee interviews jobholders or representatives as part of the evaluation process, it should:
16.1 make them feel comfortable and thank them for their participation,
16.2 ask them to focus on the job and not on the people doing it,
16.3 ask them to focus on the more complex aspects of the job,
16.4 ask for factual answers, examples and critical incidents,
16.5 ask open-ended questions,
16.6 avoid leading questions, and
16.7 curtail firmly, but politely long-winded or irrelevant explanations or opinions.
17. THE Job Eva System APPEAL PROCESS
17.1 Guidelines on Appeals
An appeal process encourages transparency and provides a mechanism for employees to formally object to a grading.
• Appeals should be subject to agreed criteria, e.g.
- An inaccurate job description;
- agreed procedures not followed ( procedural irregularity);
- evidence of discrimination and bias;
- incorrect constituted committee;
- inconsistent results in comparison with similar positions in the organisation.
• Jobs against whose grade has been an appeal are re-examined and re-evaluated;
• Management ratifies the re-evaluated grade.
17.2 Appeal Process
17.2.1 After consideration/approval of the results, they will be forwarded to the initiator.
17.2.2 The Human Resources Department will inform the incumbent (where applicable) in writing.
17.2.3 The incumbent (where applicable) motivates with the necessary substantiation the appeal to the line manager in writing within five (5) working days of receiving the results.
17.2.4 If satisfied with the motivation from the incumbent, the line manager makes a substantiated recommendation within five (5) working days, to Human Resources Department.
17.2.5 After careful analyses of the appeal by Human Resources Department, the line manager will be informed in writing of the outcome of the analysis.
17.2.6 Depending on the outcome of the analysis by Human Resources Department, the job may be re-evaluated or not.
17.2.7 The line manager will be informed by Human Resources Department, in writing of the results of the re-evaluation of the job.
17.2.8 No further appeal may be lodged after the results of the re-evaluation are made known to the line manager and/or incumbent.
17.2.9 Should the employee and/or the line manager insist on an appeal after the results of the re-evaluation, such employee and/or line manager will be responsible for the full costs of such appeal.